Galileo, Science and the Bible




THE GEOCENTRIC MODEL
In astronomy, the geocentric model of the universe is the disproved theory that the Earth is at the center of the universe and the Sun and other objects go around it. Belief in this system was common in ancient Greece. It was embraced by both Aristotle and Ptolemy, and most Greek philosophers assumed that the Sun, Moon, stars, and naked eye planets circle the Earth. ...the Ptolemaic system is sometimes considered identical with the geocentric model...



PLATO and ARISTOTLE
The geocentric model entered Greek astronomy and philosophy at an early point in which Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC), and Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) supported. The teacher (Plato) and the student (Aristotle) believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. Ancient Greeks believed the geocentric model and was accepted by most Greek philosophers. The acceptance of these 2 "great" philosophers to the geocentric model was dated way back at 4th century BC. The geocentric model was part of the Greek astronomy. Aristotle is a renowned philosopher and made wrote diverse topics on physics, metaphysics, poetry (including theater), logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology.



Claudius "PTOLEMY" Ptolemaeus (ca. 90 – ca. 168 AD), was a Greek or Egyptian mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who flourished in Alexandria, Roman Egypt. Ptolemy was the author of an ancient astronomical treatise that is now known as the Almagest. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets.



THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD (14th-17th century) was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual enquiry.... Renaissance thinkers sought out learning from ancient texts, typically written in Latin or ancient Greek. Scholars scoured Europe's monastic libraries, searching for works of antiquity which had fallen into obscurity. In such texts they found a desire to improve and perfect their worldly knowledge;...
...Church patronized many works of Renaissance art... (Including Aristotle's philisophy and science)



THE (Copernican) HELIOCENTRISM
Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) revealed his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis. The Copernican theory challenged Aristotle's and Ptolemy's commonly accepted geocentric model of the universe endorsed by the (catholic) Church. Copernicus discussed the philosophical implications of his proposed system, elaborated it in full geometrical detail, used selected astronomical observations to derive the parameters of his model from a series of astronomical observations, and wrote astronomical tables which enabled one to compute the past and future positions of the stars and planets. In doing so,
Copernicus moved heliocentrism from philosophical speculation to predictive geometrical astronomy.



Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642)[1][2] was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher closely associated with the scientific revolution. His achievements include the first systematic studies of uniformly accelerated motion, improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Galileo's empirical work was a significant break from the abstract Aristotelian approach of his time. With his telescope, Galileo was able to view the space much clearer compared to the other astronomers. Galileo supported the earlier claim of Nicolaus Copernicus about the HELIOCENTRISM which is against Aristotle's belief on Geocentric model, a model which was adopted by the Roman Catholic Church.




Science vs. Science

GEOCENTRIC vs. HELIOCENTRISM

Aristotle/Ptolemy vs.
Copernicus/Galileo

from wikipedia: Galileo began his telescopic observations in the later part of 1609, and by March of 1610 was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius), relating some discoveries that had not been
dreamed of in the philosophy of the time: mountains on the Moon, lesser moons in orbit around Jupiter, and the resolution of what had been thought cloudy masses in the sky (nebulae) into collections of stars too faint to see individually. Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots.

None of these findings proved that the Earth moved, or directly contradicted Christian doctrine; all were difficult at first for other astronomers to verify. But they caused difficulties for theologians and for natural philosophers (the
name given to scientists at the time), as they contradicted the scientific and philosophical ideas of the time, which were based on those of Aristotle, whose teachings were and are closely associated with the Catholic Church. And a major upset in what had been considered eternal truths concerning the heavens led the more unconventional thinkers to look seriously at the new ideas of astronomy in which the Earth moved and the Sun stood still; these ideas did appear to contradict the Bible.

Jesuit astronomers, experts both in Church teachings and in natural philosophy, were at first skeptical and hostile to the new ideas. Within a year or two, however, availability of good telescopes enabled them to repeat the new observations. In 1611 Galileo visited the Collegium Romanum in Rome, where the Jesuit astronomers by that time had repeated his observations and treated him with respect. Christoph Grienberger, one of the Jesuits scholars on the faculty, sympathized with Galileo’s theories, but was asked to defend the Aristotelian viewpoint by Claudio Acquaviva, the Father General of the Jesuits. Not all of Galileo's claims were completely accepted: Christopher Clavius, the most distinguished astronomer of his age, never was reconciled to the idea of mountains on the Moon. And outside the Collegium many still disputed the reality of the observations. In a letter to Kepler of August 1610[1], Galileo complained that some of the philosophers who opposed his discoveries had refused even to look through a telescope[2].

There were still problems in relations with the Jesuits. Galileo became involved in a dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots with Christoph Scheiner, a prominent Jesuit. This became a bitter lifelong feud. Oddly, neither of them was right; there can be little doubt that the first observations were by David Fabricius and his son Johannes.

At this time also, Galileo engaged in a dispute over the reasons that objects float or sink in water, siding with Archimedes against Aristotle, the favorite of the academics. The debate was unfriendly, and Galileo's blunt and sometimes sarcastic style, though not extraordinary in academic debates of the time, made him enemies. Galileo's friends reported to him that a group of professors of philosophy were working quietly to raise opposition to him in the Church, where accusations of heresy were more deadly than anything that could be done to a dissenter in a university; their success is indicated by the sermon of Caccini, described later.

One of the first suggestions of heresy that Galileo had to deal with came in 1613 from a professor of philosophy, Cosimo Boscaglia, who was neither a theologian nor a priest. In conversation with Galileo's patron, Cosimo II de' Medici, Boscaglia gave the opinion that the telescopic discoveries were valid, but the motion of the Earth was obviously contrary to Scripture. Galileo was defended on the spot by a Benedictine abbot, Benedetto Castelli, who was also a professor of mathematics and a former student of Galileo's. This exchange, reported to Galileo by Castelli, led Galileo to write a letter to Castelli, expounding his views on what he considered the most appropriate way of treating scriptural passages which made assertions about natural phenomena. Sometime later (in 1615) he expanded this into his much longer Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina. Castelli remained Galileo's friend, visiting him at Arcetri near the end of Galileo's life, after months of effort to get permission from the Inquisition to do so.

The first dangerous attack appears to have been that by Tommaso Caccini, a Dominican friar, who preached a sermon in Florence at the end of 1614, denouncing Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general (a category that included astronomers). The biblical text for the sermon on that day was Joshua 10, in which Joshua makes the Sun stand still; this was the story that Castelli had had to interpret for the Medici family the year before. It is said, though it is not verifiable, that Caccini used the passage "Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven?"



Science vs. Catholics
With the Renaissance' influence to the Roman Catholic Church, The catholics supported the geocentric model to their theology. The church was surprised and was quite offended by the findings of Galileo Galilei about the Heliocentrism. Not only Galileo made some issues with the clergymen but also with co-scientists as well. Some scientists, after a debate with Galileo even went on raising their issue to the church. The catholics was on their balancing act whether to stay with Aristotle's support to geocentric model or embrace the new heliocentrism being endorsed by Galileo. Take note that at one time that there was a pope that was a close friend and believer of Galileo. Probably that's the reason why when Galileo refused to recant his studies, Galileo was given a slap in the hand instead or even more harsher punishment. Galileo was just put on a house arrest.

How can the catholic embrace Galileo's idea and turn their back on Aristotle's idea when the Greek's influence was written all over the catholic's face. The Greek inspired art (renaissance) was painted all over the catholic churches. The catholic church have stood still on Aristotle's Geocentric model and treated Galileo's Heliocentrism as heretic. The catholic banned and confiscated Galileo's book entitled "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems -- Ptolemaic & Copernican" and sentenced him on lifetime house arrest.


Galileo's findings not only raised the eyebrows of the scientists at his time but also the churchmen of the catholics that were binded in Aristotle's belief in Geocentrism. Galileo was not against Christianity but was a firm believer in the bible. He was persistent in his discoveries which includes on "attacking" Aristotle's claim which kind of hurted the catholics. Even the academe community was adherent to Aristotle's geocentrism.

The fact is, Science is not always right. Science may appear to be right at a particular time, but time will only tell that Science may be proven wrong if it is against the bible. Imagine, Aristoles and/or Ptolemy's' geocentric model was accepted as truth by the academe and the church from the 3rd century to the 1500s. Imagine, how many scientist and believers died believing that Earth is the Center of the Solar System/Universe before Galileo's revelation. Well, the geocentric model is not alone in this kind of scenario. It took more than 40 years for scientists to discover that the Piltdown Man was a hoax and a forgery. I also like Science, but I think Science should beware when touching truths written in the bible. Science may appear to be right at a particular time, but time will only tell.

Better to rely and believe in the bible like Galileo did.

Rely on God's words, instead on learning too much information from other sources.

Ever learning,
and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
2Tim 3:7
And further, by these, my son, be admonished:
of making many books [there is] no end;
and much study [is] a weariness of the flesh.
Ecc 12:12




Through The Never is a metal song by Metallica which is about Man's never-ending quest for knowledge, meaning and understanding of time and space (universe). The song explains that the Man can never comprehend the vastness of space (universe) and the beginning and end of time because Human has a limited understanding.

Through The Never

All that is, was and will be
Universe much too big to see

Time and space never ending
Disturbing thoughts, questions pending
Limitations of human understanding
Too quick to criticize
Obligation to survive
We hunger to be alive..Ye.yeahh!!

(Twisting, Turning, Through the never)
All that is, ever
Ever was
Will be ever
Twisting
Turning
Through the never

In the dark, see past our eyes
Pursuit of truth no matter where it lies

Gazing up to the breeze of the heavens
On a quest, meaning, reason
Came to be, how it begun
All alone in the family of the sun
Curiosity teasing everyone
On hour home, third stone from the sun…Ye-ye-ye-yeah!!!

(Twisting, Turning, Through the never)
All that is, ever
Ever was
Will be ever
Twisting
Turning
Through the never

On through the never
We must go
On through the never
Out to the
Edge of forever
We must go
On through the never
Then never comes

(Twisting, Turning, Through the never)

All that is, ever
Ever was
Will be ever
Twisting
Turning
Who we are
Ask forever
Twisting
Turning
Through the never

Never

1 comment:

josepherdon said...

Sources and related links
http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/basics/g37/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_affair

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